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視頻軟件用到讓人厭倦,但想說再見卻不容易

上证指数年线在哪: 視頻軟件用到讓人厭倦,但想說再見卻不容易

Lydia Belanger 2020年06月11日
受新冠疫情影響,今年很多人開始了沒完沒了的視頻通話。

2019沪指年线位置 www.839841.tw

圖片來源:Illustration by Fortune

讓我們一起將視線投向美國新冠疫情的“震中”——紐約市,在居家令下達6天之后,亞歷克斯·弗雷杜斯8歲的兒子“走進”了自己三年級的課堂,跟往常不一樣的是,今天的課程要從一次“點擊”開始。

輕擊鼠標之后,面帶微笑的同學和老師便會出現在屏幕上,向他揮手致意,同時,大家的視線也會投向屏幕外的東西。為了模擬孩子們習以為常的社交互動,每天早上,小組都需要通過熱門虛擬會議軟件Zoom打卡。在不到一小時的課程中,老師問了學生最近感覺如何,在家里都做了些什么。每個孩子都有機會發言。隨后,老師會將本周剩余時間的線上課程安排告訴學生。

當晚晚些時候,弗雷杜斯在餐桌上告訴兒子,未來一段時間的課程都將在線上完成。聽到這一消息,小男孩皺了皺眉。他說:“我不喜歡線上課,太難了。要是不能和小伙伴們一起玩,我也不想見到他們?!?/font>

隨后幾周,弗雷杜斯與兒子商量,只上那些她覺得最重要的課程。(比如,兒子數學很好,所以沒有必要逼著他每節數學課都去上。)畢竟兒子才8歲,使用鍵盤或鼠標都有些費勁,而且她以前一直告訴孩子不許碰她的電腦。對孩子而言,線上學習本身也要適應一段時間,這無疑會讓孩子更加想念自己的小伙伴,也會因此影響孩子的心情。

對很多因為疫情而無法出門社交的成年人來說,弗雷杜斯兒子的痛苦他們顯然也是感同身受,更不用說那些不是很會使用信息技術的人了。遵守規定,宅在家中,大家為了個人及公共衛生安全,在人際交往方面做出了犧牲。對于許多人來說,這就意味著沒完沒了的視頻通話。

數據證明,至少對很多從事白領技術工作的人而言確實如此。Clockwise是一款專注優化員工工作安排的時間管理軟件,其提供的數據顯示:相較于疫情爆發前,員工在小組會議和一對一會議上花費的時間分別增加了29%和24%。正常情況下,很多事情在辦公桌或飲水機旁就可以談,現在卻成了一種奢望。

很多人都在抨擊Zoom,表示Zoom讓他們“頭疼不已”、“疲憊不堪”,呼吁專家弄清楚視頻通話讓我們筋疲力盡的原因所在。解釋多種多樣,Axios上的文章簡要總結如下:視頻電話并非自然的交談方式;很難進行目光交流;能夠看到自己,容易讓人分心;還有無法改變的對話環境——電腦屏幕。這些原因加上很多其他因素,給我們大腦的信息處理帶來了困難。

微軟研究員南?!け茨繁硎?,雖然這些情況確實存在,但我們不應將疫情造成的壓力歸咎于技術。

自20世紀90年代開始,貝姆便一直在研究線上交互行為,著有《數字時代與推特上的個人聯系:一部自傳》一書(Personal Connections in the Digital Age and Twitter: A Biography),她說:“在面對新生事物時,哪怕是你喜歡的東西,也需要適應?!痹諤傅繳緗皇櫪朧逼詰南呱匣嵋槭?,她表示:“我想,如果這種狀況持續一段時間,人們的態度應該會有所變化?!?/font>

但這并不意味著人們在適應了之后就會接受這種工作學習的方式。奧爾加·卡西亞·卡普蘭是三個孩子的母親,同時也是學生數據隱私?;さ某頰?。她表示,自己12歲的女兒在Zoom上完成了一個多月的課之后,現在不像以前那么愿意通過Zoom來學習了。和許多同學一樣,她目前會在上課時關掉電腦的攝像頭。

加西亞·卡普蘭說:“有些孩子覺得這種上課方式侵犯了自己的空間,侵犯了自己的隱私,這讓孩子們有些難以接受。有的孩子會說:‘為什么我必須讓老師看見我的屋子?’也有孩子會覺得:‘有些同學和我算不上是朋友,我不想讓他們看到我住的地方?!?/font>

Garcia-Kaplan’s daughter has also expressed unwillingness to discuss “how quarantine is going” with her teacher and classmates. Her reluctance to open up in that way, day after day, indicates she’s fed up with more than just the video calls. 加西亞·卡普蘭的女兒還表示,自己不愿意與老師和同學討論“隔離期間過得怎么樣”這樣的話題。她對這種交互方式的抵觸說明讓她無法忍受的可不只是那些視頻通話。

“有人認為只要用上了這些技術我們就可以開始干活了,不會覺得累?!北茨匪?,“也有人認為如果我們在工作中使用了這些技術還覺得累,那就是技術出了問題,與疫情無關?!?/font>

疫情(如果不是因為弗洛伊德之死而在全美引發的反種族歧視和反警察暴力游行示威)造成的情感負擔讓許多人很難或無力參與電話會議或線上課程。(另一制約因素則來自于經濟方面,因為許多人家中可能沒有網絡或者其他的數字資源。)因此,弗雷杜斯表示,處于優勢地位的人應該大聲說出潛在的局限性,前提是這么做不會對自己造成不利或負擔。

弗雷杜斯便與兒子的老師及所在學校的行政人員進行了面談,討論了學生在適應線上教學過程中所面臨的挑戰。她本人曾是一名老師,現在則是塞頓·霍爾大學教育領導力管理與政策系的教授。

“我可以讓孩子根據自己的情況有選擇性的上網課,但其他家長未必能做到,可能有些家長也不知道怎么判斷哪些課對孩子來說最為重要,”弗雷杜斯說,“在我看來,如果家長們都把自己孩子上網課的情況說出來,那么學校就會對孩子們上課的真實情況有更深刻的認識,了解孩子們上課時都有哪些挑戰以及自己能為此提供哪些支持?!?/font>

對于上班族而言也是如此。有些上班族可能更有能力為此發聲,指出自己與同事們在家工作時還需要照顧其他家庭成員。

弗雷杜斯提醒說,即便技術、不平等、學習習慣不同以及疫情本身都不是造成各種不便的根本原因,人們也不應該隨便找個別的“替罪羊”來當作批判的靶子。

“我不認為我們可以指望學校、個性化指導或某些教育工作者能化腐朽為神奇,解決全球疫情造成的問題?!?弗雷杜斯說,“某種意義上可以說:疫情會造成損失,這無可避免?!?/font>

疫情迫使社會各階層進行了一項全新的社會實驗,但要想從可持續的角度弄清人們對使用視頻會議工具的反應,則需要切實開展縱向研究。眼下驟然出現的社會變化讓人們產生了各種混亂交織的感受。

貝姆說:“研究人們現在對這些工具的看法時必須小心謹慎,對未來人們會如何看待這些工具進行概括時也應秉持同樣的態度。因為人們內心深處都渴望彼此交流,所以在我看來,這是一個不斷優化技術并使之能更好地為我們服務的過程?!保ú聘恢形耐?/font>

譯者:Feb

讓我們一起將視線投向美國新冠疫情的“震中”——紐約市,在居家令下達6天之后,亞歷克斯·弗雷杜斯8歲的兒子“走進”了自己三年級的課堂,跟往常不一樣的是,今天的課程要從一次“點擊”開始。

輕擊鼠標之后,面帶微笑的同學和老師便會出現在屏幕上,向他揮手致意,同時,大家的視線也會投向屏幕外的東西。為了模擬孩子們習以為常的社交互動,每天早上,小組都需要通過熱門虛擬會議軟件Zoom打卡。在不到一小時的課程中,老師問了學生最近感覺如何,在家里都做了些什么。每個孩子都有機會發言。隨后,老師會將本周剩余時間的線上課程安排告訴學生。

當晚晚些時候,弗雷杜斯在餐桌上告訴兒子,未來一段時間的課程都將在線上完成。聽到這一消息,小男孩皺了皺眉。他說:“我不喜歡線上課,太難了。要是不能和小伙伴們一起玩,我也不想見到他們?!?/font>

隨后幾周,弗雷杜斯與兒子商量,只上那些她覺得最重要的課程。(比如,兒子數學很好,所以沒有必要逼著他每節數學課都去上。)畢竟兒子才8歲,使用鍵盤或鼠標都有些費勁,而且她以前一直告訴孩子不許碰她的電腦。對孩子而言,線上學習本身也要適應一段時間,這無疑會讓孩子更加想念自己的小伙伴,也會因此影響孩子的心情。

對很多因為疫情而無法出門社交的成年人來說,弗雷杜斯兒子的痛苦他們顯然也是感同身受,更不用說那些不是很會使用信息技術的人了。遵守規定,宅在家中,大家為了個人及公共衛生安全,在人際交往方面做出了犧牲。對于許多人來說,這就意味著沒完沒了的視頻通話。

數據證明,至少對很多從事白領技術工作的人而言確實如此。Clockwise是一款專注優化員工工作安排的時間管理軟件,其提供的數據顯示:相較于疫情爆發前,員工在小組會議和一對一會議上花費的時間分別增加了29%和24%。正常情況下,很多事情在辦公桌或飲水機旁就可以談,現在卻成了一種奢望。

很多人都在抨擊Zoom,表示Zoom讓他們“頭疼不已”、“疲憊不堪”,呼吁專家弄清楚視頻通話讓我們筋疲力盡的原因所在。解釋多種多樣,Axios上的文章簡要總結如下:視頻電話并非自然的交談方式;很難進行目光交流;能夠看到自己,容易讓人分心;還有無法改變的對話環境——電腦屏幕。這些原因加上很多其他因素,給我們大腦的信息處理帶來了困難。

微軟研究員南?!け茨繁硎?,雖然這些情況確實存在,但我們不應將疫情造成的壓力歸咎于技術。

自20世紀90年代開始,貝姆便一直在研究線上交互行為,著有《數字時代與推特上的個人聯系:一部自傳》一書(Personal Connections in the Digital Age and Twitter: A Biography),她說:“在面對新生事物時,哪怕是你喜歡的東西,也需要適應?!痹諤傅繳緗皇櫪朧逼詰南呱匣嵋槭?,她表示:“我想,如果這種狀況持續一段時間,人們的態度應該會有所變化?!?/font>

但這并不意味著人們在適應了之后就會接受這種工作學習的方式。奧爾加·卡西亞·卡普蘭是三個孩子的母親,同時也是學生數據隱私?;さ某頰?。她表示,自己12歲的女兒在Zoom上完成了一個多月的課之后,現在不像以前那么愿意通過Zoom來學習了。和許多同學一樣,她目前會在上課時關掉電腦的攝像頭。

加西亞·卡普蘭說:“有些孩子覺得這種上課方式侵犯了自己的空間,侵犯了自己的隱私,這讓孩子們有些難以接受。有的孩子會說:‘為什么我必須讓老師看見我的屋子?’也有孩子會覺得:‘有些同學和我算不上是朋友,我不想讓他們看到我住的地方?!?/font>

Garcia-Kaplan’s daughter has also expressed unwillingness to discuss “how quarantine is going” with her teacher and classmates. Her reluctance to open up in that way, day after day, indicates she’s fed up with more than just the video calls. 加西亞·卡普蘭的女兒還表示,自己不愿意與老師和同學討論“隔離期間過得怎么樣”這樣的話題。她對這種交互方式的抵觸說明讓她無法忍受的可不只是那些視頻通話。

“有人認為只要用上了這些技術我們就可以開始干活了,不會覺得累?!北茨匪?,“也有人認為如果我們在工作中使用了這些技術還覺得累,那就是技術出了問題,與疫情無關?!?/font>

疫情(如果不是因為弗洛伊德之死而在全美引發的反種族歧視和反警察暴力游行示威)造成的情感負擔讓許多人很難或無力參與電話會議或線上課程。(另一制約因素則來自于經濟方面,因為許多人家中可能沒有網絡或者其他的數字資源。)因此,弗雷杜斯表示,處于優勢地位的人應該大聲說出潛在的局限性,前提是這么做不會對自己造成不利或負擔。

弗雷杜斯便與兒子的老師及所在學校的行政人員進行了面談,討論了學生在適應線上教學過程中所面臨的挑戰。她本人曾是一名老師,現在則是塞頓·霍爾大學教育領導力管理與政策系的教授。

“我可以讓孩子根據自己的情況有選擇性的上網課,但其他家長未必能做到,可能有些家長也不知道怎么判斷哪些課對孩子來說最為重要,”弗雷杜斯說,“在我看來,如果家長們都把自己孩子上網課的情況說出來,那么學校就會對孩子們上課的真實情況有更深刻的認識,了解孩子們上課時都有哪些挑戰以及自己能為此提供哪些支持?!?/font>

對于上班族而言也是如此。有些上班族可能更有能力為此發聲,指出自己與同事們在家工作時還需要照顧其他家庭成員。

弗雷杜斯提醒說,即便技術、不平等、學習習慣不同以及疫情本身都不是造成各種不便的根本原因,人們也不應該隨便找個別的“替罪羊”來當作批判的靶子。

“我不認為我們可以指望學校、個性化指導或某些教育工作者能化腐朽為神奇,解決全球疫情造成的問題?!?弗雷杜斯說,“某種意義上可以說:疫情會造成損失,這無可避免?!?/font>

疫情迫使社會各階層進行了一項全新的社會實驗,但要想從可持續的角度弄清人們對使用視頻會議工具的反應,則需要切實開展縱向研究。眼下驟然出現的社會變化讓人們產生了各種混亂交織的感受。

貝姆說:“研究人們現在對這些工具的看法時必須小心謹慎,對未來人們會如何看待這些工具進行概括時也應秉持同樣的態度。因為人們內心深處都渴望彼此交流,所以在我看來,這是一個不斷優化技術并使之能更好地為我們服務的過程?!保ú聘恢形耐?/font>

譯者:Feb

Six days into stay-at-home orders in New York City, the epicenter of the novel coronavirus pandemic in the U.S., a third-grade class for Alex Freidus’s 8-year-old son started with an unusual step: a click.

Her son’s classmates and teacher appeared on the screen, smiling and waving and staring at things outside the frame. The morning group check-in, hosted on the popular virtual conferencing tool Zoom, was an attempt to approximate the social interaction the children were used to enjoying in person. During the session, which lasted just under an hour, the teacher asked the students about how they were feeling and what they had been up to at home. Every child had the opportunity to speak. Then the teacher laid out virtual lesson plans for the rest of the week.

Later that night, at the dinner table, Friedus mentioned to her son that virtual sessions would be the new routine. He frowned. “I do not like that,” he said. “It’s hard. And I don’t want to see my friends if I can’t play with them.”

In the weeks since, Freidus has negotiated with her son to get him to engage with the lessons she thinks are most critical for him. (He’s strong in math, for example, so she doesn’t push him to tune into every math lesson.) But he’s only 8. He hasn't fully learned how to type or use a computer mouse, and she has always instilled in him that her laptop is off-limits. Online learning itself is a learning curve for him, which adds to the frustration of missing his friends.

Freidus’s son’s lamentations may ring just as true for adults starved of social interaction, let alone those who are less tech-savvy, during the pandemic. People who comply with stay-at-home orders are sacrificing in-person connection for personal and public health. For many, this has meant a transition to seemingly endless video calls.

The data already prove it out, at least for those in white-collar tech jobs: Workers are spending 29% more time in team meetings and 24% more time in one-on-one meetings than they were before the COVID-19 pandemic, according to Clockwise, the maker of a calendar assistant that optimizes employees' work schedules. In a completely work-from-home environment, colleagues can't drop by each other’s desks or have unplanned watercooler conversations.

Countless people have decried newfound “Zoom hangovers” or “Zoom fatigue,” calling upon experts to figure out what it is about video calls that drains us. Explanations run the gamut, as this Axios article concisely summarizes: It’s not a natural way to have a conversation. It’s difficult to make eye contact. We can see ourselves, which is distracting. Every conversation takes place in the same context—on the same screen. All of this, and more, is difficult for our brains to process.

While all of these very real phenomena are at play, that doesn’t mean that we should place undue blame on technology for the stress the pandemic has wrought, says Microsoft researcher Nancy Baym.

“Anything that’s different, even if you like it, requires some amount of adjustment,” says Baym, who has been studying online interaction since the early 1990s and is the author of Personal Connections in the Digital Age and Twitter: A Biography, among other works. “I imagine that if we keep this up over time,” she says of virtual meetings amid social distancing, “the kinds of complaints that people have will change.”

That doesn’t mean people will be onboard once they overcome the learning curve. Olga Garcia-Kaplan, a mother of three and student data privacy advocate, says that after more than a month of school via Zoom, her 12-year-old daughter’s tolerance for learning via the medium has plummeted. She and many classmates now log on with their cameras off.

“Some of them are seeing it as an invasive medium,” Garcia-Kaplan says. “It’s a lot for them to deal with, from a privacy perspective: ‘Why do I have to show my teacher my home?’ and ‘I don’t want kids who I’m not necessarily friends with to see my home, either.’”

“There’s this idea that we’re all just going to hop onto technology and get to work, and we won’t be tired,” Baym says, “Or we’re going to hop onto technology and get to work, and if we’re tired, it’s because of the technology, rather than because the world is in crisis.”

The emotional burden of the pandemic (if not the recent protests about racism and police brutality following the death of George Floyd) may make it challenging or impossible for someone to call into meetings and classes. (So may the economic one, in the case of households that don’t have Internet connections or other digital resources.) That’s why Freidus says it’s important for people in a privileged position to speak up about potential limitations—provided they feel secure in doing so without fear of recourse.

For her part, Freidus has met with her son’s teacher and school administrators to discuss the challenges students have had adapting to the virtual classroom. She herself is a former teacher, now a professor at Seton Hall University in the department of Education Leadership Management and Policy.

“I am comfortable treating some of this work as optional, but I know all families don’t feel comfortable doing that, or don’t feel confident assessing what’s most important,” Freidus says. “I think that if enough families share their stories, schools will be better informed in terms of thinking about what’s happening for kids, what the challenges are, and how they can best support the range of situations going on.”

The same could be said for workplaces. Some employees may feel more empowered than others to point out the caregiving responsibilities they and their colleagues are juggling while working from home.

If the technology is not fundamentally to blame—and inequality, divergent learning styles, and the pandemic itself are—that doesn’t mean people merely should grasp for another convenient scapegoat, Freidus warns.

“I also think that we cannot expect schools, or individualized instruction, or whatever extraordinary efforts that some educators can make, to solve the problem of a worldwide crisis,” Freidus says. “Part of it is saying: There is loss, and there is going to be loss.”

The pandemic is forcing part of society to engage in a new experiment—but it’s going to take real, longitudinal research to tease out how people respond to using videoconferencing tools on a sustained basis, Baym says. Right now, feelings about abrupt societal change are muddling feelings about virtually everything else.

“I would be really wary of taking any findings about how people feel about these tools right now and generalizing to how they’re going to feel about them in the future,” Baym says. “What I see is always a process of trying to make these technologies work for us as best they can, because we yearn to be in communication with one another.”

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